Pippenger Controller

The key computation of the pippenger algorithm is adding each input coefficient to a value stored in RAM (also called a bucket). This would be trivial except for the latency of the point adder, which is over 200 clock cycles.

Naively, if a coefficient needs to be added to a bucket that is currently in use by the point adder we need to wait until the addition is complete before trying again. With table sizes of around 4K, and a pipeline depth of 200 we would expect buckets to be busy in the pipeline around 5% of the time. Waiting on average 100 cycles per hazard would unacceptably hurt our performance.

Instead our controller uses a couple of simple heuristics to try to keep the pipeline as busy as possible, while avoiding data hazards.

Scalar tracking

We need to store 200 RAM locations to track data through the pipeline and check if a new coefficient would cause a hazard. Naively done this would require 200 comparators in parallel and then a wide OR reduction.

In our controller we actually process multiple windows on successive clock cycles. In our current design we have 2 separate controllers tracking about 10 windows each. Since there can be no hazard between windows, we only need to compare and OR reduce $1/10$ of the scalars in the pipeline.

Stalled point FIFO

When we detect a hazard the coefficient and related scalar are placed in a stalled point FIFO and we insert a bubble into the pipeline for that cycle.

There are separate FIFOs for each window being processed.

The FIFOs are only a few elements in size and are actually all combined into a single (wide) set of RAMs.


We initially did some modelling to try to find an efficient algorithm.

Here’s what we came up with.

  1. If all the stalled point FIFOs have a least one element, process them
  2. If any of the stalled point FIFOs are full, process them.
  3. Otherwise process incoming data.

By processing full FIFOs first, we avoid overflow. When they do get full, however, they must be flushed. We found with only 4 elements per FIFO this was extremely rare.